Siemens-Schuckert D.III

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the German group Siemens had a small adventure in the field of aeronautics. It all began in 1910 with works relating to airships at first, then to the rotary engines in vogue at the time. With the advent of the First World War this firm turned to the production of reconnaissance aircraft and fighter whose greatest success was a small biplane arrived at the end of the conflict, D.III.

Known as Siemens-Schuckert, the aeronautics branch of the group sought during the summer of 1917 to give an effective successor to its very good biplane fighter D.I then being withdrawn in the German forces. His first attempt, known as D.II, soon proved unsuccessful and a new team led by engineer Harald Wolff began to study a new fighter radically different from his predecessors. In the biplane configuration, it naturally received the designation of D.III.

From the very beginning, Wolff and his team turned to the Siemens-Halske Sh.III rotary motor, a 160 horsepower thruster capable of driving a quadripal wooden propeller. If this engine has nothing extraordinary about a classic fighter, it will give a real power to the D.III that the managers of Siemens-Schuckert imagine much smaller than its competitors and its enemies. The result will give them all right. 

Externally this aircraft was in the form of a biplane with offset wings, with a short fuselage of circular cross-section. It is constructed using interlocking wood and plywood. The Sh.III engine was completely shrouded and had a propeller pan to increase its aerodynamics. The pilot was sitting in an open cockpit and served the two 7.7mm Spandau twinned and synchronized machine guns. The aircraft had a conventional landing gear with a tail pad with a steel coulter. It was in this configuration that D.III made his first flight in October 1917. 

The German pilots quickly became enthusiastic, with the first specimens entering service on the French front in January 1918. Small, handy, fast, well-armed, the Siemens-Schuckert D.III was a device that delighted its airmen , Especially since he possessed an unusual climbing speed, able to reach the 1000 meters in 1 minute 45 seconds. In addition, his practical ceiling permitting him to exceed 8000 meters would protect him from the majority of his pursuers. Suffice to say that the first encounters with the British and French hunts quickly turned in favor of the German fighter.

However to the use the pilots realized that the plane had a fault, and size: it overheated dangerously. Indeed, impressed and excited by the power of their aircraft, many German pilots were pushing the machine in its final limits, sometimes at the cost of their lives. If the D.III was considered difficult to intercept by the French or British fighters several were lost as a result of accidents resulting from untimely overheating.

However, the Siemens-Schuckert D.III became legendary thanks to the Jasta 4, which made it its standard fighter in the spring of 1918, and in particular Ernst Udet, who painted his own plane in red, a little like Fokker Dr.I of Von Richthofen. This D.III was baptized Lo, diminutive of Eleonore, the fiancee of Udet who became his wife after the war. This D.III is probably one of the most famous German hunters of the First World War.

Often regarded as the German equivalent of the French Nieuport "Bébé", the Siemens-Schuckert D.III was finally a very good hunter with few weaknesses. It gave birth to the D.IV which was the last combat aircraft built in series by Siemens. It has been produced at more than 200 copies of which at least 41 are known to have killed enemy aircraft.

Specification :

Wingspan: 8,43 m
Length: 5,75 m
Height: 2.80 m
Length: 5,75 m
Wing area 18.84 m²
Empty weight 523 kg
Starting weight 725 kg
Engine a Siemens & Halske Sh.III eleven-cylinder engine with 210 hp
Wing spacing: m
Max speed: 190 km / h
Climbing time: at 1,000 m: 1,75 min
Height of service: 8.100 m
Range: 360 km
Flight duration: 2 h
Armament two MG 08/15

Crew: one pilot

Avro Lincoln

During the Second World War, the mission of heavy bombardment in the RAF returned mainly to three machines now become legendary; and in particular the Avro Lancaster. But they eventually had to be replaced because they became obsolete address modern hunters. One solution was to thoroughly modernize the Lancaster in order to give birth to a new machine. Thus was born at the end of hostilities the Avro Lincoln, the last heavy bomber piston engines designed in the UK.  

In 1943, the Air Ministry issued the Specification 14/43 for a new type of heavy bomber that can evolve at high altitude in order to get as much as possible away from the flak, which was rampant among the bomber formations allies. The aircraft manufacturer Avro responded by proposing to develop a new four-engine from its main unit while serving in the RAF Lancaster. The development from an existing base already was a specialty manufacturer since Lancaster had itself been extrapolated from the twin-engine Manchester.

The new aircraft received the designation of Model 694 by the manufacturer. It was in the form of a median wing monoplane large scale, a four with a double tail fin and a retractable landing gear. Unlike its predecessors the new bomber was planned from the start to the carriage of H2S radar in a radome under the fuselage. Its defensive armament consisted primarily three turrets, a nose, tail and backbone, all equipped with two heavy machine guns of 12.7mm caliber. The offensive armament was when he composed to a little more than six tons of bombs contained in the hold. Externally the new aircraft had at an enlarged Lancaster. He was named Lincoln.

The aircraft first flew June 9, 1944, three days after the Normandy landings. Some minor changes were made and a second prototype was built, leading its maiden flight on November 13, 1944. The origination forecasts provided for the delivery of more than 2,200 aircraft. The end of hostilities signaled the end of Lincoln in the RAF since the first units entered service in August 1945, just days after the atomic bombing of Japan by the United States. Finally Lincoln B Mk-I entered service only 72 copies, while better protected B Mk-II was assembled up to 465 copies. Above all, it was the only one really fully with its H2S radar and all the possibilities provided by this type of system. 

Quickly Lincoln RAF were based in Germany, as part of the occupation forces, and the Pacific. Lincoln replaced postwar Lancaster, Halifax and Stirling, the three main British heavy bombers. Within the RAF, they flew in the company of Washington, the Boeing B-29 acquired by the United Kingdom in 1946. In 1950, the RAF undertook its Lincoln in combat operations in Kenya and especially in Malaysia face a Marxist guerrilla particularly violent. Lincoln flying under the protection of Gloster Meteor and De Havilland Mosquito, breathless meet.

But the UK is not the only country to have used the Lincoln as the Royal Australian Air Force and the Fuerza Aérea Argentina used it respectively 73 and 26 copies. Australian Lincoln as they intervened in Malaysia in reinforcing their British counterparts, while the Argentine aircraft flew primarily for sovereignty missions, although a South American Lincoln became the first postwar bomber to fly over Antarctica in a strategic reconnaissance mission.
Lincoln RAF also filled of aerial espionage missions and strategic reconnaissance, under the designation R Lincoln Mk-I. They retained their defensive armament while the load of bombs had disappeared in favor of a system of recognition and observation revolving around the H2S radar and camera systems. Twenty of these aircraft served in the RAF. It is precisely one of those planes was shot down by a MiG-15 Soviet fighter in May 1957 over the corridor of Berlin. This is the first British aircraft down in Europe since May 1945.

Lincoln also served as a flying testbed for various propellers and jet engines developed by British industry. The bombing of Lincoln gave way to Canberra jets in 1955, the last of them finally leaving the service in 1963.

Specifications : 
Crew 7
Length 23.86 m
Wingspan 36.58 m
Height 5,27 m
Empty weight 19.686 kg
Loaded weight 34.019 kg
4 x12-cylinder V-engines Rolls-Royce Merlin 85 with 1774 hp each

Max speed 475 km / h

Koolhoven FK.52

This aircraft was built quickly at the express request of France in late 1938. The last nose of Koolhoven has a design very similar to that of the Fokker D 21. However, the Fk 58 is faster and more agile thanks to its train Retractable. France orders 51 aircraft mainly for the French colonies, but it receives only 18 before the start of the war.

Operational history
These 18 aircraft, of which 13 are operational, are piloted by Poles during the Battle of France. The planes commanded by the Dutch government were never produced and the factory was destroyed on the first day of the invasion of the Netherlands by the Luftwaffe.

Specifications : 

General characteristics :

Length: 8.25 m 
Wingspan: 9.81 m 
Height: 3.31 m 
Wing area: 28.42 m² 
Empty weight: 1,652 kg 
Max. takeoff weight: 2,550 kg 
Powerplant: one × Bristol Mercury radial engine, 620 kW 
Max speed: 380 km/h 
Range: 1,131 km
Service ceiling : 9,820 m 
Crew: 2
two  7.7 mm machine guns

Svenska Aero Jaktfalken

SA-11 Jact Falcons, the SA-12 and SA-Skolfalken Övningsfalken 13 ("Advanced Trainer Falcon") - Svenska Aero AB three aircraft in their arrangement of falcons (Falcon). For the beginning there were SA-12 Skolfalken.

The organization had not made much progress with its past business, the SA-10 pirates. Never before - despite the difficulties and despite the lack of enthusiasm of the Air Force - Svenska Aero began work plan for a general trainer aircraft. It is inherently two refunds - essentially (Type I) Mentor SA-12 and powered Skolfalken (II) SA-13 Övningsfalken coach.

The main Skolfalken SA-12 as a hypothesis in 1929. The pilots of the Luftwaffe produced were gathered for practice races, which have taken place in Barkarby near Stockholm with beginning in September of this year. The tests were successful and the head supervision Svenska Aero AB - the notable pilot and air navigator creator Carl Clemens Bücker, understood how to deliver the flying machine in the air force. The Skolfalken has received the official Sk8 assignment and recruitment in the Air Force 5100 number.

The flying machine was switched to Flight Academy of the Luftwaffe in Ljungbyhed (F 5). Some changes have been made. The most convincing was a further balance and rudder. Ljungbyhed flight instructors were very satisfied with their Sk 8 and not the Air Force would push Sk 6 Heinkel coach with Sk worries 8. But unfortunately for Svenska Aero, Sk 6 inconsistent with its surplus motors, Soon to be grounded for good. There was no way to sit for the transport of Svenska Aero. Instead ten de Havilland Moth DH 60T Trainers (Sk 9) were built in 1931 The time between application and the transport was only two months received and passed on.

The simple Sk8 continued to fly F 5 for several years. Later, he was traded to F 3 at Malmen, where she was made in 1938 after 386 hours of deployment. The account easy Sk8 was undoubtedly in spring in a year when the airship was used as a flamap (see photo below).

Sk 8 was cooled by an engine spiral 5-barrels Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose cooled 135 hp. A flying machine of the SA-13 Övningsfalken variant mentioned above was also manufactured. It was mainly a similar plan, but more grounded by a motor is controlled. See Ö 8!
Svenska Aero was lucky with the admirer Jaktfalken. 1 + 17 aircraft were purchased from the Air Force, assigned J 5 and J 6.

Specifications : 

Crew: 1
Length: 7.50 m
Wingspan: 8.80 m (upper wing)
Height: 3.46 m
Surface area: 21.8 m²
Empty weight: 946 kg
Maximum starting weight: 1,470 kg
Engine: a Bristol Jupiter VIIF with 388 kW (520 hp)
Max speed: 310 km / h
Cruising speed: 260 km / h
Height: 7,800 m
Armament: 2 7,92 × 57 mm Mauser machine guns

Horten Ho 229

The Ho 229 (or Gotha 229) comes from the Horten IX, the latest prototype of the Reimar brothers and Walter Horten, specializing in flying wings. After designing gliders in the 1930s such as Horten I, II, III, IV, and then the Horten V with piston engine, the Horten brothers were interested in a jet fighter.

The Horten IX was a flying wing with virtually no visible fuselage, the power plant and pilot capable of housing in the front part of the wing. The engines planned were BMW 003 but these too large were replaced by a pair of Junker Jumo 004. The central section of the wing was composed of a tube-steel structure to support both the weight of the pilot And all cockpit equipment and engines. The outer side of the wings is made of wood and agglomerated fiber, the whole, covered with a special coating to give the smoothest possible finish.

After successful flight tests, the RLM decided to start production, but unfortunately the prototype passed into the hands of Gotha when the Horten IX-V2 crashed during an attempt at landing. The firm Gotha then began in the summer of 44, studying the device now called Gotha Go 229, and corrected the few defects of the flying wing to reaction. For the armament, it was equipped with four Mk-103/108 guns of 30mm placed on the leading edges of the wings next to the engines. However, the Horten brothers still continued their studies on this device.

The first prototype of the series was the Gotha 229 V-3 or Horten IX-V3, but it was not completed before the arrival of the Allied troops. From the first flights, the Gotha 229 reached 950 km / h at sea level and 975 km / h at 12000 meters. But in April, the Friedrichsroda plant was taken by US forces.

There were many parts and aircraft being assembled, one of the Gotha 229s was seized by the American army and taken to the USA to study it, like many other aircraft and planes. The English tried to steal the aircraft and equip it with new engines, but the complexity of the aircraft made the project impossible. This prototype was therefore repatriated to the USA and kept at the National Air and Space Museum. Subsequently, Northrop's work was inspired in part by the technical progress of the Horten brothers.  

Specifications :  

General characteristics
Crew: one
Length: 7.47 m 
Wingspan: 16.76 m 
Height: 2.81 m 
Wing area: 50.20 m² 
Empty weight: 4,600 kg 
Loaded weight: 6,912 kg 

Powerplant: 2 × Junkers Jumo 004B turbojet, 8.7 kN each
Max speed: 977 km/h (estimated) (607 mph) at 12,000 metres 
Service ceiling: 16,000 m (estimated) 
Thrust/weight: 0.26
Guns: 2 × 30 mm MK 108 cannon
Rockets: R4M rockets

Saab 17

Before the rise of the risk of war between Nazi Germany and the Franco-British alliance the Swedish government studied the acquisition of new aircraft equipment. Decided to maintain its neutrality Swedish purchased licenses of aircraft constructions with the Allies but also the Nazis. Thus were built in Sweden in Italian CR-32 fighter, the German bomber Ju-86, US schools aircraft NA-16, and Douglas 8A reconnaissance aircraft. 

In 1937, shortly after its inception, the company SAAB (Svenska Aeroplan AB) studied the design and construction of a single-engined ground attack and armed reconnaissance. This aircraft was to be the first device originally designed by SAAB. The plane was designated SAAB B17 and made its first flight May 18, 1940, or during the war.

This device was a sleek single-engine two-seater mid wing. Much like a hunter, the B17 was quickly acquired by the Flygvapnet who first ordered 325 copies. Featuring a classic retractable landing gear, the B17 also had a long canopy closed cockpit. Large bulges under the wings allowed to enter the main landing gear, strengthened to serve? Airbrake. Versions equipped with skis had additional air brakes under the mast before skiing.

Early versions of the B17 (B17a) were driven by an American Pratt & Whitney R1830-SC3G of 1065ch. The B17a were devoted to missions of ground attack and dive bombing. Capable of competing with the Ju-87 Stuka Luftwaffe, the B17a was not exported in Europe mostly under Nazi domination.

In 1941, Saab developed the B17b version with an English engine Bristol Pegasus XXIV of 980ch, but Flygvapnet made them into seaplane and used them under the name S17B. They were used for maritime reconnaissance missions and reconnaissance of the battlefield. The S17B was built 38 copies.

Before the troubles due to the reversal of Germany against the USSR, the Swedish company received the order of 145 new aircraft to attack from the B17a. SAAB decided to design the B17C version equipped with an Italian Piaggio P-XIA of 1020ch. During the conflict B17 three were shot by foreign aircraft: a S17B by a Fw-190 Luftwaffe, a B17a by a P-51 USAAF and another B17a by a Mosquito of the RAF.

Total production reached all versions, 376 appareils.Les B17 were all removed from service by Sweden in 1948, after proving their value and robustness. In 1944, the Danish Free Forces received a lot of B17, which did not participate in the liberation of Denmark. Between 47 and 50? S Ethiopia recovered 47 B17C she used for attack and reconnaissance missions. The last Ethiopian SAAB were withdrawn from service in 1969.

Danish Saab 17 

Specifications : 
Wingspan: 13.70 m
Length: 9.80 m
Height: 4.35 m
Wing area: 28,50 m²
Empty weight: 2 600 kg
Loaded Weight: 3 790 kg
Engine: STW C-3 (manufactured by Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin WASP license version) 14-cylinder air-cooled double-radial engine, power 1 065 hp.
Max speed: 420 km / h
Service Ceilling: 8 500 m
Range: 1 800 km.
Crew : 2

Operators : 

Morane-Saulnier Type-L

At the beginning of the WW1, many aircraft manufacturers ran into a problem that seemed unsolvable: how to get through the propeller. The solution came at a time of a renowned aviator Roland Garros, and a genius engineer Raymond Saulnier. Both devised an extraordinary system for the synchronized firing through the propeller pitch, system they went up on a plane that would soon become the first months of 1915, the nightmare of German pilots: the Morane -Saulnier Type-L.

From 1912, the Roland Garros raid driver was one of the drivers of the Morane-Saulnier manufacturer. At the outbreak of hostilities in 1914, he was not only pilot with combat units of the Military Aviation French (forerunner of the Air Force), but it also ensured his engineering role and driver tests for Morane-Saulnier.Le 1 March 1915, he made the first airplane flight of a kind new: the Type-L.

This device was a parasol monoplane single-engine single-seater fighter. Powered by the all new radial engines of the company Gnome & Rhone, the aircraft mainly differed from other hunters in his arms. Indeed, he boarded a Hotchkiss machine gun with a 7.9mm caliber pulling synchronization through the propeller pitch. The latter have also been redesigned to be more streamlined and reinforced, steel deflectors.

The Type L, also called MS.3 in some French and Belgian units, immediately entered into service in most allied planes. The French Military Aviation and the Royal Flying Corps (forerunner of the RAF) made it early in the month of April 1915 their main fighter, including the destruction of German reconnaissance aircraft but also for traditional hunting.

Lightweight and well powered, Type-L quickly became a formidable opponent for frail hunters Kayser. Unfortunately, on 20 April 1915, only a month and a half after the first flight of the aircraft, the pilot Roland Garros fell into German hands intact with its hunter. Forced to work with the Germans during his captivity, he allowed them to develop the Fokker Eindecker, aircraft-inspired Type-L.

Despite this, Morane-Saulnier delivered more than 600 type-L until January 1916, by the main French fighter between May 1915 and January 1916. Raymond Saulnier decided to share his system with all aircraft manufacturers allies and he sent a copy of his fighter to all manufacturers who made the request. In Britain, it will build the Sopwith 1.1 / 2, the first British fighter to synchronized machine gun.

July 1, 1915, the France suffers loss in its first air combat Type-L, and fills the attic, he was then shot by a Fokker Eindecker, his cousin "Germanic". In August of 1915, and because of this resemblance, six Type-L were shot by mistake by the French and Belgian DCA, two devices RFC. Therefore, it was decided to put greater roundels on parasol monoplane Morane-Saulnier in order to avoid confusion with Eindecker.

Gradually, the Type-L were withdrawn from frontline service, and when the Armistice of November 11, 1918, less than thirty remained in service with the French Military Aviation, mainly for training missions. The L-Type served, except in France, Belgium, Great Britain, Russia, Romania, but also in Poland or Sweden. The aircraft was built under license in ten copies by Aero in Czechoslovakia.

If it was eclipsed during World War II by Allied fighters of the stars as the Royal Aircraft Factory SE-5 or the SPAD XII, the Type-L does remains a pioneer of military aviation.

Specifications :  

Wingspan 11.20 m
Length: 6,88 m
Height: 3.93 m
Wing area 18,30 m²
Empty weight 385 kg
Loaded weight 655 kg
Engine 9-cylin- der engine Gnome-Rhône with 59 kW (80 hp)
Armament Hotchkiss or Lewis MG 7.7 mm (.303 inch)
Max speed 123 km / h [3]
Climbing time on 1,000m 5 min. 45 sec.
Service Ceilling 4,000 m
Duration 2 hours
Crew 1 pilot, 1 observer